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  Judith Weston patarimai dirbantiems su profesionaliais aktoriais

Experiential v Result Oriented direction

Experiential direction: providing an understanding of what the character tangibly wants, rather than providing an intellectualized description of the character’s static emotional states (e.g. disappointed, happy) or worse still a description of the desired mood result of the scene (e.g. moody, scary). I.e. allowing the actor to live the character’s inner life, rather than merely attempting to show it.

 

Directing Ambivalence

People are surely complex, but they are not able to do two things at once. They may say one thing while doing another. Or they may rapidly alternate what they are doing from one moment to another. But that’s not the same as being “cautious yet cheerful” at the same time.

 

Sympathy for characters

Even the most horrible characters feel self-justified, like themselves and believe in themselves (to varying degrees). If a director is negatively judgmental about a character, how can the actor believe in himself as that character?

 

Actors responding to each other

Are the actors responding and reacting to each other or are they just declaiming lines at each other?

 

Avoiding adjectives

Adjectives (like friendly, sexy) are static, subjectively interpretative or intellectualized generalizations. They lead an actor one step away from the primary experience he needs to access.

 

Using Action Verbs

Action Verbs describe what someone is doing so they are active rather than static. They encourage experience rather describing conclusions about experience. Action verbs involve an emotional transaction between two people (to accuse, to avoid, to dominate, to flirt)

 

Line Readings

Sometimes a line reading is the only way to convey the meaning of a line.  They are not actually so very bad if the priority of the reading is to convey the intention behind the line (i.e. what the character wants or is doing with the line) rather than setting out a fixed inflection for the actor to follow.

 

Facts

Facts speak for themselves and they are often more eloquent than explanations. Two kinds of facts are useful to the director: facts that are in the script (factual backstory and the events of the script), and facts that are not in the script (imaginative backstory).

 

Facts instead of Psychologising

‘He can’t express his feelings’ (psych.) v ‘He doesn’t express his feelings’ (fact). Or ‘She is very attached to her mother’ v ‘She wrote to her mother every day of her honeymoon.’ The unadorned facts are more eloquent.

 

Imaginative Adjustments

This often takes the form of as if. For a love scene you might ask the actors to play it as if it were a business deal. Or for another scene you might ask an actor to play it as if the other actor has bad breath.

 

A Physical Task

A physical task takes the actor’s attention off the lines and adopting the right attitude. It allows the lines or attitude to emerge naturally from the main concentration on the task.

 

Asking Questions

The best way to direct is not by giving direction at all, but by asking questions. This allows the actors to find the characters themselves. But the director must be prepared for unexpected answers and then know how either to accept and incorporate such answers or to guide the actor towards a more acceptable viewpoint. The important thing is that the actor ends up feeling that the character is his.

 

Natural Performance

 

Actors being in the moment

Only if an actor can act naturally in the moment, can we get a convincing performance (at a microscopic detail). This can come through having the actor prepare well in advance so that they don’t have to think about it on set. If this happens then the director can keep his on set directions to a minimum.

 

Actors listening to the other actors

If an actor places more attention on the other character than on her own performance, then his lines can come out of that attention, as a genuine response, rather than out of a conscious decision how to say them. One good way to encourage this is to ask the actor to make eye contact with the other, since this demands a certain level of communicative attention.

 

Not looking at the monitor

“It is astonishing to me that nowadays so many directors position themselves at the video monitor while the scene is shooting. You can’t tell from the monitor whether the actors are listening. You must be next to the camera, watching their naked faces.

 

Actors’ Tools

 

Questions

If an actor asks you a question, do not give a definitive answer unless you have an answer you believe in. Often the best answer is ‘What do you think?’ If the actor has no idea, then this can be a good starting place for an investigative discussion. If the actor has an idea that you don’t agree with then you can attempt to redirect the actor toward more suitable alternatives.

 

Opposites

Opposites are a great tool of script analysis. As soon as you come up with one idea, consider also its opposite. An actor who gets stuck in a logical, ‘on the nose’ choice will never look like a real person. The off-kilter, illogical choice is usually the truest one. People don’t know who they are or what they want, and they don’t usually do the right thing to get it.

 

Need

Spine: One script, one spine.  The spine is the character’s super-objective, what the character wants (or needs) during the whole script, what the character wants out of life, who the person is. A good actor, when reading a script, looks for a playable spine – a hanger or hook from which all the character’s actions depend.

 

Objective: One scene, one objective. What the character wants themselves or the other character to do. The simpler the character’s objective in a scene is, the more playable it is. The most playable objectives have both a physical and emotional component. The physical component makes the achievement of the objective more quantifiable, but it should always be part of an underlying emotional objective.

 

Action verbs: One beat, one action. Ways of getting to the objective. Action verbs carry an emotional intention. Complex characters may change their verb often or make wide swings from, say, soothing to punishing in one speech.

 

A short list of action verbs:

Demand

Convince

Persuade

Encourage

Incite

Brag

Complain

Beg / plead

Cajole

Coax

Charm / flatter

Soothe

Tease / tickle

Flirt

Seduce

Dazzle

Challenge

Accuse

Nail

Goad

Warn

Punish

Ridicule

Belittle

Knife

Scrutinize

Pry

Stalk

 

Obstacle

Sometimes a productive way to talk about a character’s need is to talk about a character’s ‘problem’. The concept of ‘problem’ incorporates the sense of need with a sense of obstacle.

Other Characters: Actors who cooperate, bargain or collude with each other on the emotional subtext of a scene, often suck the life out of it. Each actor’s emotional subtext must be sovereign, unpredictable, in the moment, otherwise the scene loses a sense of obstacle, and the emotional life becomes a ‘connect the dots’ drawing. It is a very good idea to ask the actors not to discuss the work with each other. When actors discuss their characters it is like gossip – fun, but not creatively useful.

 

 

The Script: Often an actor says ‘My character wouldn’t say that.’ Sometimes he will genuinely be drawing attention to a false note. However, sometimes the writing is solid and the actor has not made the connection necessary to see the life in the line. If you have the time and skill you can give his performance a huge boost by insisting that he find a way to meet the line, and find a way to justify it.

 

 

 

Facts

Sometimes just explaining the facts, such as the character’s backstory, habits and relationship to another character is enough and it is not necessary, even inadvisable, to be explicit about the character’s objective in a scene. It can simply be allowed to emerge naturally from the facts.

 

Adjustments

These are not in the script, they are ‘what ifs’. Adjustments are ways of talking about the character’s behaviour without using adjectives. Instead of saying the character A is ‘respectful’ towards B, we can say ‘imagine B is an important man’ or ‘imagine B has a gun in his pocket’.

 

Subtext

What the person is really saying, underneath the line or action. E.g. ‘You got a haircut (I wish you hadn’t)’. If you want an actor to give a look to another actor that is ‘skeptical’, but you want to avoid the adjective, you could use the subtext ‘Are you serious?’

 

Physical Life

Physical life grounds a performance. An important part of creating a character is in finding activities and behaviour for her. What objects are her allies or her enemies? Watch out for clichés.

 

Script Analysis

 

Non-sequiturs and Contradictions

One of the best things that can happen on the first read is that there will be lines that you don’t understand and that don’t fit. In a well-written script, such non-sequiturs and contradictions can be gold. Elusive suggestions are often more powerful than obvious facts.

 

Facts behind the script

Facts are very powerful to actors – the magic ‘as if’. The actor creates a set of simple circumstances, allows himself to believe in them and the functions as if he were in those circumstances. “Facts” are events that we know have happened or circumstances we know to be true before the scene starts. They are not emotional interpretations but bare physical facts.

 

Rehearsal

 

The purpose of rehearsal

 

Some actors and directors fear rehearsal or say they don’t believe in it. They say rehearsal kills freshness and spontaneity of performances. This is a misunderstanding of the function of rehearsal, which is not to set out a connect-the-dots schema for the actors to follow by rote, but to open up the possibilities of the script, find its emotional and physical structure and give the actors permission to play.

 

First reading

Start out with a simple, free, conversational reading of the scene with no acting and no blocking – talking and listening only. It’s a kind of ground zero from which to work. Sometimes people talk about rehearsal as a time for the actors to get comfortable with the script and with each other. What is meant by this is making sure the actors are talking and listening, rather than giving performances.

 

Through lines

When an actor has confidence in the structure of a scene, he is not shackled but freed to fill it with spontaneous, moment-by-moment life. Find out the actor’s ideas about what is going on in the scene for their character. If an actor has an idea, that is good, because it gives her honesty and energy, and a connection. Even if you don’t agree, try to build on what she gives you.

 

Facts

The basis for a character’s through-line is his given circumstances, that is, his facts or his situation. A simple reminder of the facts, or backstory may be adequate for creating the through-line. Learn how to tell this story well.

 

Need or Objective

Another way of getting at the through-line is via the character’s objective – what he wants and what he is doing to get what he wants. In terms of dramatic structure, every well-written scene has one objective per character.

 

Layers

Directors commonly tell actors too much at once. Work in layers and beats. If you tell your actor, “You love your husband and want to cheer him up, but you also have feeling for your ex-boyfriend,” you have given her an impossible direction to follow. The two contradictory elements cancel each other out. Probably it is best to begin with the surface layer and add the other layers at their relevant points.

 

  

 

Nuorodos

 

Informacija apie pasaulio kino ir videomeno festivalius

 

www.lux.org.uk

www.shootingpeople.org

www.britfilms.com

www.filmmakers.com

 

Lietuvos kino ir videomeno renginių kalendorius

 

www.eb.lt

 

Videomeno festivaliai

 

Buenos Aires (Argentina) International Festival of Independent Films

priima tik 16 arba 35 mm juostas / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai / filmai turi būti subtitruoti ispaniškai

www.bafici.gov.ar

 

Brisbane (Australija) International Animation Festival

vyksta kas dvejus metus / priima animaciją / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

www.biaf.com.au

 

Ohne Kohle (Austrija) Independent VideoFilmfestival

kasmetinis / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

www.ohnekohle.net

 

COURTisane Festival (Belgija) for short film, video & new media

domisi naujomis mediomis / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

www.courtisane.be

 

MostraMundo (Brazilija) - The Moving Image Festival

tik videomenas / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

www.aeso.br/mostramundo

 

Fluxus (Brazilija) - International Film Festival On the Internet

įvairių formų videomenas / priima beveik visus formatus / iki 15 minučių trukmės / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

www.fluxusonline.com

 

Montréal (Kanada) International Festival of New Cinema and New Media

ieško naujų formų videomeno / priima beveik visus formatus / filmai neturi būti rodyti anksčiau / filmai turi būti subtitruoti angliškai arba prancūziškai / dalyvio mokestis US$25 / skiriami prizai

www.nouveaucinema.ca

 

Victoria (Kanada) Independent Film and Video Festival

kasmetinis / priima nekomercinius videodarbus / dalyvio mokestis CDN$10 / skiriami prizai

www.vifvf.com

 

International Panorama (Graikija) of Independent Film and Video

priima filmus įvairiais formatais / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

www.independent.gr

 

Titanic (Vengrija) Film Festival

priima tik 16 ir 35 mm juostas bei Beta SP kasetes / be dalyvio mokesčio / prizai neskiriami

www.titanicfilmfest.hu

Roma (Italija) Independent Film Festival

priima filmus įvairiais formatais / yra kintantis dalyvio mokestis / skiriami prizai

www.riff.it

 

Osaka (Japonija) European Film Festival

priima trumpus ir pilno metražo profesionalius filmus / skiriami prizai

www.oeff.jp

 

Image Forum (Japonija) Festival

kasmetinis / priima eksperimentinius filmus / dalyvio mokestis ¥1,000 / skiriami prizai

www.imageforum.co.jp

 

Next Festival (Lietuva)

kasmetinis / priima nekomercinius filmus ir videomeną / ieško naujų filmo formų / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

www.nextfestival.net

 

Oporto (Portugalija) International Short Film Festival

priima video filmus / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

www.corta.com.pt

 

Volgograd (Rusija) International Festival of Videoart ’Videology’

priima įvairius video filmus įvairiais formatais / be dalyvio mokesčio / prizai neskiriami

www.videologia.ru

 

Independent Film (Ispanija) Festival

rodo filmus tik iš 35 ir 16 mm juostų bei Beta SP, DVCam kasečių / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

http://alternativa.cccb.org

 

Molodist International (Ukraina) Film Festival

priima tik 16 ir 35 mm juostas / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

www.molodist.com

 

onedotzero film (Anglija) festival

priima įvairių formų vizualinį meną: nuo video žaidimų iki reklamų / priima tik Beta SP kasetes / be dalyvio mokesčio / prizai neskiriami

www.onedotzero.com

 

Independent Film Festival of Boston (JAV)

priima animaciją, dokumentinius ir eksperimentinius videodarbus / dalyvio mokestis US$15-$45 / skiriami prizai

www.iffboston.org

 

Indiefest (JAV)

priima muzikinius klipus, dokumentinius filmus, animaciją, trumpametražius filmus / dalyvio mokestis US$20-US$100 / skiriami prizai

www.indiefestchicago.com

 

ShockerFest International (JAV) Film Festival

priima fantastinius ir siaubo filmus / dalyvio mokestis $25-55 / skiriami prizai

www.shockerfest.com

 

New York (JAV) Underground Film Festival

priima inovatyvius videomeno darbus / yra kintantis dalyvio mokestis / skiriami prizai

www.nyuff.com

 

Tampa (JAV) Independents’ Film Festival

priima įvairius formatus taip pat ir flash filmukus / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

www.independentsfilmfest.com

 

Santiago (Èilė) International Short Film Festival

priima eksperimentinę animaciją, filmus ir dokumentiką įvairiais formatais / filmau turi būti pateikti kartu su dialogais anglų arba ispanų kalba / be dalyvio mokesčio / prizai neskiriami

www.festivalcortometrajes.cl

 

International Festival of New Film Split (Kroatija)

priima įvairius trumpametražius filmus, animaciją ir dokumentiką / be dalyvio mokesčio / skiriami prizai

www.splitfilmfestival.hr

 

Avanto Helsinki (Suomija) Media Art Festival

priima audiovizualinius projektus, eksperimentinius filmus ir videodarbus / de dalyvio mokesčio / prizai neskiriami

www.avantofestival.com